COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019 CT computed tomography DLCO diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor EMT epithelial–mesenchymal transition FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s FVC forced vital capacity HPV human papillomaviruses HRCT high-resolution computed tomography ICI immune checkpoint inhibitor IH intermittent hypoxia IL interleukin ILD interstitial lung disease IPF idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis LDCT low-dose CT NF-κB nuclear factor-κB NSCLC nonsmall cell lung cancer OSA obstructive sleep apnoea PD-1 programmed cell death 1 PD-L1 programmed cell death ligand 1 PET positron emission tomography ROS reactive oxygen species SARS-CoV-2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SCC squamous cell carcinoma SCLC small cell lung cancer TGF transforming growth factor Th T-helper cell TKI tyrosine kinase inhibitor TNF tumour necrosis factor VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor List of abbreviations
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